Indonesian Recipe – Diary – DAWN.COM


THE Indonesian National Action Plan on Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism (NAP on PCVE) that leads to terrorism reflects the fact that countering extremism (CE) requires both long-term and short-term plans.

Indonesia is the fourth and Pakistan the fifth most populous country in the world. An archipelago of 17,508 islands, Indonesia shares a land border with East Timor, Papua New Guinea and Malaysia, and maritime borders with seven countries – India, Australia, Thailand, Vietnam, Palau, Singapore and the Philippines – making Counter Terrorism (CT) more difficult. For Pakistan, located in the same neighborhood as Afghanistan, Iran, China and India, it becomes difficult to draw a clear distinction between internal and external security threats.

A comprehensive CT strategy, NAP on CVE attempts to build a gendered response to terrorism and VE. It is based on a soft approach to combat VE through prevention, law enforcement and international partnership and cooperation.

The PCVE NAP focuses on aligning the national legal framework with the international legal framework on CVE that leads to terrorism. Legal overlap has been identified as one of the reasons for the ineffectiveness of CT and CVE measures. Pakistan could also take inspiration from the suggested exercises and revise its CT laws.

Extremism and terrorism know no geographical boundaries.

In post-9/11 conflict zones, women are not only victims of terrorism, they are also instrumental in the recruitment, facilitation and indoctrination of children. In traditional societies, the potential role of women as peacemakers has not received due attention. The 2018 Surabaya bombings, which were carried out by family groups, forced the revision of traditional approaches to VE. The inclusion of women in the security sector and gender mainstreaming have become inevitable.

Inauthentic data or lack of data integration affects planning, resource allocation, and analytics results on VE. LEAs do not control the collection and processing of data; rather, they manipulate statistics. In Indonesia, the task was given to Statistics Indonesia. In the case of Pakistan, the position could be assigned to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

The PCVE NAP also identifies the inadequacy of funding sources to compensate victims of terrorism and suggested the introduction of a trust fund for victims. In Pakistan, although security force and LEA personnel are entitled to compensation, there is no uniform compensation scheme for other categories of victims. The creation of a trust fund for victims and the enactment of uniform provincial compensation laws will bridge the gap between the state and victims.

The PCVE NAP also addresses the issue of funding and cites the need for international funding sources. The effective implementation of the NAP in Pakistan requires the allocation of additional funds.

The effectiveness of any plan depends on variables such as the timing, the level of consensus and understanding within the components of the criminal justice system and the civilian and military apparatus, as well as the mechanism of implementation, the availability additional resources, political ownership, etc. The strength of the NAP on PCVE is that it not only identified the problems, but also incorporated clearly defined actions, results, timelines and responsibilities.

The NAP on PCVE has a precise timetable (2020-2024) whereas there was no timetable in our context. To coordinate, monitor and evaluate the implementation, a joint secretariat (JS) of the NAP on PCVE was created. Ministers, heads of establishments, governors and mayors are responsible for implementing the plan in their respective regions. They are required to submit semi-annual reports on the implementation of the strategy to the SC. An annual report on implementation must be submitted to the President. In Pakistan, Nacta submits to the government a six-monthly political review on the implementation of the NAP.

The Indonesian plan emphasizes the optimization of community policing, the engagement of young people and the significant contribution of community organizations. For the eradication of VE, effective coordination between central and local governments and the community is vital. In Pakistan, the NAP is a post-18th amendment development that requires a proactive role of the provinces and greater collaboration between provincial and federal ministries.

In CT, Indonesia mainly follows the criminal justice model based on law enforcement approach in which terrorism is treated as a crime while Pakistan follows a combination of criminal justice and military model.

Extremism and terrorism know no geographical boundaries. Regional cooperation guarantees peace and peaceful coexistence. Indonesia’s transition from a whole-of-government approach to a combination of a whole-of-society and a whole-of-government approach can be a source of inspiration for many countries.

The writer is the author of Pakistan: In Between Extremism and Peace.

Twitter: @alibabakhel

Posted in Dawn, January 17, 2022


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